### 3.9 Colon Definitions

are similar to procedures and functions in other programming languages.

: squared ( n -- n^2 )
dup * ;
5 squared .
7 squared .

`:`

starts the colon definition; its name is `squared`

. The
following comment describes its stack effect. The words `dup *`

are not executed, but compiled into the definition. `;`

ends the
colon definition.

The newly-defined word can be used like any other word, including using
it in other definitions:

: cubed ( n -- n^3 )
dup squared * ;
-5 cubed .
: fourth-power ( n -- n^4 )
squared squared ;
3 fourth-power .

**Assignment:** Write colon definitions for `nip`

, `tuck`

, `negate`

, and
`/mod`

in terms of other Forth words, and check if they work (hint:
test your tests on the originals first). Don't let the
‘`redefined`’-Messages spook you, they are just warnings.

Reference: Colon Definitions.